It redirected philosophical attention to neglected questions of natural and metaphysical necessity and to the connections between these and theories of reference, in particular of. Rigid designators stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Ever since the publication of its original version, naming and necessity has had great and increasing influence. The book has four chapters, covering the main topics of kripkes epic naming and necessity nn. Explorations in the philosophical work of saul kripke. Naming and necessity 3 the preface first, but that they return to it for clarification if necessary after they have read the main text. Kripke, naming and necessity gaby pilson and sophie gaulkin. Naming and necessity 195 h t the thing which we saw in the evening is the thing which we saw in. Routledge philosophy guidebook to kripke and naming and. He claims there is an inherent problem in the fregean notion of sense.
Kripke uses name to refer solely to these, not to definite descriptions definite descriptions the x such that ax x is the referent, the object uniquely satisfying the. A sense is supposed to be that which is grasped by the mind, a meaning in some nontechnical sense. Kripke wants to demonstrate that if one believes in the identity of mental and brain states, one needs to accept the theorys full consequence, namely that there cannot be brain states which are not mental. Naming and necessity semantic scholar but they should be.
In naming and necessity saul kripke argues against typetypeidentity theory by the use of an argument from philosophy of language. One of kripkes primary goals is to argue that proper names are rigid designa tors. Kripke harvard university press cambridge, massachusetts copyright c 1972, 1980 by sau. If a name refers to an object o, it refers to o with respect to every possible world in which o exists. The preface of 21 pages describes the genesis and background of the leading ideas of the monograph, and discusses a few common misunderstandings. This, then, the real menig of the idntity statement in uestion.
A conflation in freges notion of sense kripke s response to fregean theories. Free download naming and necessity pdf, if there is such a thing as essential reading in metaphysics or in philosophy of language, this is it. Kripkes most important philosophical publication, naming and necessity 1980, based on transcripts of three lectures he delivered at princeton in 1970, changed the course of analytic philosophy. Naming and necessity pdf, in particular, both thought that there was no fundamental difference between ordinary proper names and definite descriptions. Identity and necessity 185 think, contrary to most recent theorists, that the reference of names is rarely or almost never fixed by means of description. Kripke if there is such a thing as essential reading in metaphysics or in philosophy of language, this is it. Naming and necessity a conflation in freges notion of sense frege should be criticized for using the term sense in two senses. From 2 and 3, we can conclude that, for every x and y, if x equals y, then, it is necessary that x equals y. Briefly, kripke argues that necessary and contingent are metaphysi.
In reading naming and necessity, it is clear that saul kripke stands in a similar position. If there is such a thing as essential reading in metaphysics or in philosophy of language, this is it. Philosophy saul kripke naming and necessity philosophy essay. Giving the semantic content this is one facet of a fregean sense. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Hughes describes his book as centering on a number of kripkes. It redirected philosophical attention to neglected questions of natural and metaphysical necessity and to the connections between these and theories of. But kripke would deny that a speaker would have to know this essence, or to rely upon any other nontrivial criteria distinguishing you from world to world, in order to refer to you by way of a rigid designator kripke 1980, pp. In 19634, kripke concluded that it can be demonstrated that names in ordinary language are rigid designators, and therefore that identities are necessary. Kripke, 9780631128014, available at book depository with free delivery worldwide. It provided the first cogent account of necessity and possibility as metaphysical concepts, and it. The transcript was brought out originally in 1972 in semantics of natural language, edited by donald davidson and gilbert harman. For example, we take it to be the case that it is contingent that the first postmaster of the united states is identical with the inventor of bifocals i.
So, according to frege, there is some sort of looseness or weakness in our language. The routledge philosophy guidebook to kripke and naming and necessity is an ideal starting point for anyone coming kripkes work for the first time. Kripke naming and necessity problems associated with simple descriptivism the most common way out of this difficulty is to say really it is not a weakness in ordinary language that we cant substitute a particular description for the name. Lecture 1 proper names people, countries, cities, etc. The ideas in naming and necessity evolved in the early sixties most of the views were formulated in about 196364. View notes kripkelecture1 from phil 8310 at utah valley university. The modal argument 4849, 7177 in lecture i, kripke introduced the notion of rigid designation. It is essential reading for philosophy students studying philosophy of language, metaphysics, logic, or the history of analytic philosophy. There we saw that we could give the following test for the rigidity of a term. Yet kripke argues that in the case of naming, where a word somehow relates to an extralinguistic individual object, most of his colleagues got it all wrong. Kripkes naming and necessity some theses of naming and necessity 1. Since the descriptions ordinarily associated with names. A great deal of the books brilliance lies in the astonishing simplicity of his solution to some of philosophys most fiendish puzzles and the ease with which he lectures reveals the powerful grasp he.
But 3 xyx y ax x y is a substitution instance of 1, the substitutivity law. Naming and necessity a return to mill kripke proposes a millian theory of names, according to which proper names dont have senses. If a name refers to an object o, it refers to o with respect. If one expression is a rigid and another is not, they cannot mean the same thing. Since he takes it to be uncontroversial and common ground. For he takes the sense of a designator to be its meaning. Download it once and read it on your kindle device, pc, phones or tablets. Naming and necessity is a 1980 book with the transcript of three lectures, given by the philosopher saul kripke, at princeton university in 1970, in which he dealt with the debates of proper names in the philosophy of language. Naming with necessity part of the dissertation portfolio modality, names and descriptions. Naming and necessity has had a great and increasing influence. Its essays, written by distinguished philosophers in the field, present a broader picture of kripkes life and work than has previously been available to scholars of his thought. Its not a single description, but rather a cluster, a family of properties which fixes the reference. Find books like naming and necessity from the worlds largest community of readers.
We can give two arguments for the necessity of true identity claims, one linguistic and. As its title no doubt suggests, hughess is a book about kripke. Click on document kripke, saul naming and necessity. Saul kripke, identity and necessity driving question. It is well known that modern logicians also are very interested in definite descriptions. Kripke felt little sympathy for this dark doctrine uniquely identifying properties can coincide contingently, but objects cannot be contingently identical. The preface is not written in such a way as to be completely selfcontained. From kripkes naming and necessity michigan state university. This seminal work, to which todays thriving essentialist metaphysics largely owes its impetus, is here. Since the 1960s, kripke has been a central figure in a number of fields related to mathematical logic, modal logic, philosophy of language. It redirected philosophical attention to neglected questions of natural and metaphysical necessity and to the connections between these and theories of naming, and of identity. So it is said that though we have all found out that there are no unicorns, of course there might have been unicorns. Naming and necessity by saul kripke was first published in book form in 1980 and consists mainly of three lectures given at princeton university, an overview, an essay on the problem of names, and.
Synthese library monographs on epistemology, logic, methodology, philosophy of science, sociology of science and of knowledge, and on the mathematical methods of social and behavioral sciences, vol 40. This collection of essays on saul kripke and his philosophy is the first and only collection of essays to examine both published and unpublished writings by kripke. Kripkes views represent a crystallization of tendencies that have recently been very much in the air. Other articles where naming and necessity is discussed.1206 518 1157 678 1551 928 779 1462 244 923 592 1092 1082 1347 645 1195 106 892 540 429 705 267 1014 1070 1377 1043 237 1227 1162 902 707 374 72